As you know, there are beings on our planet who have an incredible ability to regenerate, allowing to grow lost limbs and restore organs. And many scientists have long argued that virtually any organism has the same capabilities – you just need to "include" the right genes. And recently, German scientists from the Max Planck Institute discovered such genes.
During their research, the university staff examined the amphibian amphibian amphibian larvae mexicanum. The fact is that in just a few weeks she can completely restore her lost limbs. Together with bone, cartilaginous tissue, muscles, nerves and blood vessels. Moreover, this amphibian can easily cope with fractures of the spine, which for most mammals turn out to be deadly.
In the process of studying the ambystoma mexicanum larvae, the experts sequenced their genome and determined the key genes responsible for limb regeneration. But this process took quite a long time. The fact is that the investigated genome consists of 32 billion base pairs of DNA (which is about 10 times more than in humans). To decipher the entire genome, scientists needed 72 million reads of DNA sections, which was helped by the analytical platform PacBio, which allows you to sequester several hundred thousand fragments per reading. In the course of further analysis of the genome, the researchers found several unique genes that are expressed in the regeneration process. It should be noted that at first it was considered that the main one is the PAX3 gene, as well as other representatives of the species, but it turned out that PAX3 is absent from ambystoma mexicanum, and its function is performed by the PAX7 gene.
Of course, the "transplantation" of new genes, people are still speechless, and this process requires further study. But now you can use unique properties to create drugs for wound healing and in new methods of repairing damaged tissues.